FitVandaag - Rowingtests
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Rowingtests on a Concept2 rowing machine.
Everything revolves around the 2 km in the rowing, so a 2k is the ultimate test. I know not everybody agrees with this bald statement, but it is. The current World Record stands at 5.36.6 by Rob Waddel, which is 124 per 500 meter. If you can pull a 2k Below around six minutes you are a big boy, getting below 7 minutes is quite often doable for an average fit man. Depending a bit on your seize. The erg rewards being tall.  
For women, everything is obviously a bit slower, a woman often is simply smaller and less strong. The erg does not compansate for that, so woman pull slower times in general. The world record for woman stands at 6.28.4 by Sophie Balmary.
me doing a 2k race in Antwerp
The relationship with other distances are globaly like below, but also depend on your personal strenghts and training focus (Are you more a sprinter or more a long distance rower?) and how wel are you trained?
 Below is a summary of my personal findings. They are not carved in stone but are reliable nad handy for for a most rowers.
First row the distances, followed bye the difference on pace per 500, between () the differences for 95% of rowers. Erg times are often given in 500 meter times. Makes it easy to compare.
500 minus 2k 12 (10/14) seconds   (This is the most less related with 2k)
1000 2k minus 5 (4 / 7) seconds
5000 2k plus 5 (4 / 7) seconds
6000 2k plus 6 (5 / 8) seconds
2k 30 minutes plus 8 (7 / 9) seconds
10,000 plus 2k 9 (8 / 10) seconds 
60 minutes 2k plus 12 (11/13) seconds
Above the hour other factors begin to come in play, so the relationship between 2k quickly become less and less. Full marathon and beyond needs special training and specific talent. Things like being very aerobicly build (muscle fiber), being able to sit on your glutes for 2 plus hours, temperature etc come in play. 
Other training / tests and their relationship to the 2k:
Otw rowers regularly conduct a so-called 30/20 test. This is 30 minutes rowing with stroke rate 20, so 600 strokes all in all if you are very strict. This is a test of power endurance. Toprowers can reach 9 km on this, which is 1.40/500. This is pretty special.
For an average man 8km is a nice goal. The relationship between 2k and this test is roughly 70%. In power (watts) you'd should get 70% of your 2k power. If not you could (even should ? ) work on your power endurance.  
6 x 500 meters with 1 min breaks, 2k pace minus 1 second
500 x 8 with 3 minutes breaks. 2k pace minus 3 or 4 seconds.
4 x 1k with 5 rest. 2k pace plus 1 second
4 x 2k with 5 minutes breaks. 2k plus 6 seconds.